By Walter H. Fertl
Petroleum formation pressures
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Additional resources for Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources
8. 8. Pressure-temperature-density diagram for water (after Barker, 1972). Excess pressure is the higher pressure due to the temperature increase from T,to T,. Note that during cooling of an isolated fluid system, such as may be caused by uplift and/or erosion, the pressure in the isolated volume will decrease below the normal, hydrostatic value. In a similar fashion, such a temperature decrease may cause a pressure drop in isolated gas zones, with the magnitude of reduction depending on the value of pressure change and the composition of the gas.
Osmotic pressures, which are generated by the membrane-like clays and which may be responsible for halting or even reversing these flows, ABNORMALLY HIGH FORMATION PRESSURES 17 are considered the dominant factor in the preservation of abnormal high pressures. ” An excellent investigation of the high formation pressures in California coast ranges and their tectonic significance has been summarized by Berry (1973)as follows: “Anomalous high fluid potentials exist within the miogeosynclinal Great Valley and eugeosynclinal Franciscan sequences of Jurassic/ Cretaceous age within the Coast Ranges and at depth on the west side of the Central Valley, California.
14. A. (after Dickinson, 1953). ) ABNORMALLY HIGH FORMATION PRESSURES 21 potential pay section, whereas normal hydrostatic pressure conditions still may exist at and below the oil/water contact. In very large structures, such as are found in the Middle East and elsewhere, overpressures resulting from density differences in oil/water systems and, particularly, in gas/water systems are known t o approach the geostatic pressure of the overburden. 208kg cm-* m-’ ] pressure gradient. Repressuring of reservoir rock Normal- or low-pressured reservoir rocks, particularly at shallow depth, containing formation water and/or hydrocarbons may sometimes be pressured up and/or repressured due t o hydraulic communication with deeper, higher-pressured formations.
Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources by Walter H. Fertl