By Robert B. McLaughlin
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Extra info for An Introduction to the Microscopical Study of Diatoms
The openings in the trough ends contribute to the impression of a set of double-lines near the edge of the Pinnularia valve. 5. Canaliculi These are narrow, tubular channels through the valve wall or extension of the valve wall. , connecting the raphe with the interior of the cell. Hendey points out that the elongated areolae or alveolae of Pinnularia are sometimes erroneously referred to as canaliculi, a practice which should be abandoned. (Refer to Figure 18). ) Latin. canalis - a water pipe.
Pinnularia viridis. Three straight isopolar axes. The frustule is diagonalsimilar to the valvar plane and apical plane, because the raphe system on each cell-half is oppositely oriented to the other in relation to the apical axis. The frustule is mirror-symmetrical to the transapical plane. Friedrich Hustedt: Die Kieselalgen Teil I (Figs. 15, & 16) Figure 6. 2. Plane-Symmetrical Frustules (Figure 7) Examples of this group are found in the genera Hantzschia, Gomphonema, Amphora, Achnanthes and Gomphocymbella.
The central area may not be entirely hyaline, but sometimes contains isolated or grouped puncta or other types of markings. When it contains isolated puncta as in Gomphonema spp. they are sometimes referred to as the stigmae. The central area may be formed from an enlargement of the central nodule in valves with a raphe. In Stauroneis, the nodule is thickened and extends throughout the area, even to the valve edges, in the form of a stauros or cross-shape (Figure 23C). In other species, such as Navicula lyra the central area may be extended outward from the central nodule laterally and then curve longitudinally for most of the length of the valve forming a characteristic ―lyre‖ shape.
An Introduction to the Microscopical Study of Diatoms by Robert B. McLaughlin